Technology Assessment

Goal: To employ laboratory assessments and identify deficiencies best practices to assist entrepreneurs, manufacturers, policymakers, and project developers in avoiding market spoiling caused by the introduction of inferior products.



Embodied energy assessment

  • Alstone, P., P. Lai, E. Mills, and A. Jacobson. 2014. "High Life Cycle Efficacy Explains Fast Energy Payback for Improved Off-Grid Lighing in the Developing World." Journal of Industrial Ecology. [Online summary]

Carbon footprint

  • Mills, E. and A. Jacobson. 2011. From Carbon to Light: A new Framework for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Replacing Fuel-Based Lighting with LED Systems. Energy Efficiency, 4:523-546. [PDF]

Market spoiling impact of inferior products

  • Mills, E., J. Tracy, P. Alstone, A. Jacobson, and P. Avato. 2014. "Low-cost LED Flashlights and Market Spoiling in Kenya's Off-grid Lighting Market." Energy Efficiency [PDF]

Measurements of indoor air pollutants from kerosene lamps

  • Apple, J., R. Vicente, A. Yarberry, N. Lohse, E. Mills, A. Jacobson, and D. Poppendieck. 2010. "Characterization of particulate matter size distributions and indoor concentrations from kerosene and diesel lamps." Indoor Air 20 (5) 399-411. Lumina Project Technical Report #7 [Online summary & downloads]

Performance of LED light sources (source luminous flux and efficacy, CCT, CRI)

  • Mills, E. 2007. "Assessing the Performance of 5mm White LED Light Sources for Developing-Country Applications." Lumina Project Research Note #1. [PDF]

Product performance tests (system luminous flux and efficacy, CCT, CRI, glare, optical losses, charging, batteries)

  • Tracy, J., A. Jacobson, and E. Mills. 2010. "Assessing the Performance of LED-Based Flashlights Available in the Kenyan Off-Grid Lighting Market." Lumina Project Research Note #6 [PDF]
  • Granderson, J., J Galvin, D. Bolotov, R. Clear, A. Jacobson, and E. Mills. 2008. "Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance." Lumina Project Technical Report #4. [PDF]
  • Mills, E. and A. Jacobson. 2007. "The Need for Independent Quality and Performance Testing for Emerging Off-grid White-LED Illumination Systems for Developing Countries." Lumina Project Technical Report #1. [PDF]
    • Also published in Light & Engineering, 16(2):5-24 [PDF]
    • And in abridged form in Russian, Svetotekhnika, 2:4-11.

Measurements of kerosene lantern fuel consumption and light output, as well as LED system goniometric performance

  • Mills, E. 2003. "Technical and Economic Performance Analysis of Kerosene Lamps and Alternative Approaches to Illumination in Developing Countries." [PDF]


Manufacturer testimonials

"Amazing amount of work and all of it is so incredibly useful. I spent much of the weekend on the phone with the engineers at my factory and we will heavily depend on using your report on the new model. We are going to totally redo our light and your report will be invaluable."
— Mark Bent, CEO, SunNight Solar

Notes on Confidentiality of Results